## The periodic table

The periodic table of the elements is a tabular method of showing the chemical elements.

In 1869, Dmitri Mendeleev a Russian chemist designed the table in such a way that recurring (”periodic”) trends in the properties of the elements could be shown.

Using the trends he observed, he even left gaps for those elements that he thought were ’missing’. He even predicted the properties that he thought the missing elements would have when they were discovered. Many of these elements were indeed discovered and Mendeleev’s predictions were proved to be correct.

To show the recurring properties that he had observed, Mendeleev began new rows in his table so that elements with similar properties were in the same vertical columns, called groups. Each row was referred to as a period. One important feature to note in the periodic table is that all the non-metals are to the right of the zig-zag line drawn under the element boron. The rest of the elements are metals, with the exception of hydrogen which occurs in the ﬁrst block of the table despite being a non-metal.

Groups

A group is a vertical column in the periodic table, and is considered to be the most important way of classifying the elements. If you look at a periodic table, you will see the groups numbered  at the top of each column.

The groups are numbered from left to right as follows: 1, 2, then an open space which contains the transition elements, followed by groups 3 to 8. These numbers are normally represented using roman numerals.

In some periodic tables, all the groups are numbered from left to right from number 1 to number 18. In some groups, the elements display very similar chemical properties, and the groups are even given separate names to identify them.

It is worth noting that in each of the groups described above, the atomic diameter of the elements increases as you move down the group. This is because, while the number of valence electrons is the same in each element, the number of core electrons increases as one moves down the group

The characteristics of each group are mostly determined by the electron conﬁguration of the atoms of the element.

• Group 1: These elements are known as the alkali metals and they are very reactive.
• Group 2: These elements are known as the alkali earth metals. Each element only has two valence electrons and so in chemical reactions, the group 2 elements tend to lose these electrons so that the energy shells are complete. These elements are less reactive than those in group 1 because it is more diﬃcult to lose two electrons than it is to lose one.
• Group 3: these elements have three valence electrons.
• Group 7: These elements are known as the halogens. Each element is missing just one electron from its outer energy shell. These elements tend to gain electrons to ﬁll this shell, rather than losing them.
• Group 8: These elements are the noble gases. All of the energy shells of the halogens are full, and so these elements are very unreactive.
• Transition metals: The diﬀerences between groups in the transition metals are not usually dramatic.

NOTE: The number of valence electrons of an element corresponds to its group number on the periodic table.

A simplified part of the periodic table

Periods

A period is a horizontal row in the periodic table of the elements. Some of the trends that can be observed within a period are highlighted below:

• As you move from one group to the next within a period, the number of valence electrons increases by one each time.
• Within a single period, all the valence electrons occur in the same energy shell. If the period increases, so does the energy shell in which the valence electrons occur.
• The diameter of atoms decreases as one moves from left to right across a period. Consider the attractive force between the positively charged nucleus and the negatively charged electrons in an atom. As you move across a period, the number of protons in each atom increases. The number of electrons also increases, but these electrons will still be in the same energy shell. As the number of protons increases, the force of attraction between the nucleus and the electrons will increase and the atomic diameter will decrease.
• Ionisation energy increases as one moves from left to right across a period. As the valence electron shell moves closer to being full, it becomes more diﬃcult to remove electrons. The opposite is true when you move down a group in the table because more energy shells are being added. The electrons that are closer to the nucleus ’shield’ the outer electrons from the attractive force of the positive nucleus. Because these electrons are not being held to the nucleus as strongly, it is easier for them to be removed and the ionisation energy decreases.
• In general, the reactivity of the elements decreases from left to right across a period.

The periodic table

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